Tag Archives: Wikipedia

Types of Unusual Letters

29 Mar

There are so many letter i dont know here

So, well, yeah…

1. Dear John Letter

“Dear John letter” is a letter written to a husband or boyfriend by his wife or girlfriend to inform him their relationship is over, usually because the author has found another lover. Dear John Letters are often written out of an inability or unwillingness to inform the person face to face. The reverse situation, in which someone writes to his wife or girlfriend to break off the relationship, is referred to as a “Dear Jane letter.”

While the exact origins of the phrase are unknown, it is commonly believed to have been coined by Americans during World War II. Large numbers of American troops were stationed overseas for many months or years, and as time passed many of their wives or girlfriends decided to begin a relationship with a new man rather than wait for their old one to return.

As letters to servicemen from wives or girlfriends back home would typically contain affectionate language (such as “Dear Johnny”, “My dearest John”, or simply “Darling”), a serviceman receiving a note beginning with a curt “Dear John” would instantly be aware of the letter’s purpose.

A writer in the Democrat and Chronicle of Rochester, NY, summed it up in August 1945:

“Dear John,” the letter began. “I have found someone else whom I think the world of. I think the only way out is for us to get a divorce,” it said. They usually began like that, those letters that told of infidelity on the part of the wives of servicemen… The men called them “Dear Johns”.

An early reference to Dear John letters was made in a United Press article of March 21, 1944.[1]

There are a number of theories on why the name John is used rather than any other. John was a common name in the United States at the time the term was coined. John is also the name used in many other terms that refer to an anonymous man or men, such as “John Doe” or “John Smith”. Another possible source for the term is the “Dear John” soap opera which was on the radio from 1933 to 1944.

The phrase “that’s all she wrote” is believed to have originated from Dear John letters. These letters would contain either the words “Dear John” and abruptly terminate, or only contain the words “Dear John, goodbye.” The phrase “that’s all she wrote” is used to indicate the end of story or an abrupt end of story, especially when the reader has a desire to know more, but the writer does not want to fulfill that desire. An example of this connection can be found in the 1951 country hit “Dear John” by Hank Williams. In this song, the chorus proceeds as “…And that’s all she wrote, Dear John…”

2. Chain Letter

A typical chain letter consists of a message that attempts to convince the recipient to make a number of copies of the letter and then pass them on to as many recipients as possible. Common methods used in chain letters include emotionally manipulative stories, get-rich-quickly pyramid schemes, and the exploitation of superstition to threaten the recipient with bad luck or even physical violence or death if he or she “breaks the chain” and refuses to adhere to the conditions set out in the letter. Chain letters started as actual letters that one received in the mail. Today, chain letters are generally no longer actual letters. They are sent through email messages, postings on social network sites, and text messages.

There are two main types of chain letters:

  1. Hoaxes – Hoaxes attempt to trick or defraud users. A hoax could be malicious, instructing users to delete a file necessary to the operating system by claiming it is a virus. It could also be a scam that convinces users to send money or personal information. Phishing attacks could fall into this.
  2. Urban legends – Urban legends are designed to be redistributed and usually warn users of a threat or claim to be notifying them of important or urgent information. Another common form are the emails that promise users monetary rewards for forwarding the message or suggest that they are signing something that will be submitted to a particular group. Urban legends usually have no negative effect aside from wasted time.

In the United States, chain letters that request money or other items of value and promise a substantial return to the participants (such as the infamous Make Money Fast scheme) are considered a form of gambling and therefore illegal.[1] Other types of chain letters are viewed as a general nuisance in that frequently multiplying letters clog up the postal system and do not function as correspondence mail, but rather, a game. Some colleges and military bases have passed regulations stating that in the private mail of college students and military personnel, respectively, chain letters are not authorized and will be thrown out. However, it is often difficult to distinguish chain letters from genuine correspondence.

3. Epistle

An epistle (play /ɨˈpɪsəl/; Greek ἐπιστολή, epistolē, ‘letter’) is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of people, usually an elegant and formal didactic letter. The epistle genre of letter-writing was common in ancient Egypt as part of the scribal-school writing curriculum. The letters in the New Testament from Apostles to Christians are usually referred to as epistles. Those traditionally attributed to Paul are known asPauline epistles and the others as catholic (i.e., “general”) epistles.

4. Hate Mail

Hate mail (as electronic, posted, or otherwise) is a form of harassment, usually consisting of invective and potentially intimidating or threatening comments towards the recipient. Hate mail often contains exceptionally abusive, foul or otherwise hurtful language.

The recipient may receive disparaging remarks concerning their ethnicity, sexuality, religion, intelligence, political ideology, sense of ethics, or sense of aesthetics. The text of hate mail often contains profanity, or it may simply contain a negative, disappropriating message.

Forensic linguists have increasingly been called upon to identify authorship of hate mail. See for example ‘Wordcrime’ a case file series by John Olsson, UK forensic linguist, which details several cases.

5. Cease and Desist

cease and desist is an order or request to halt an activity (cease) and not to take it up again later (desist) or else face legal action. The recipient of the cease-and-desist may be an individual or an organization.

In the U.S. the term is used in two different contexts. A cease-and-desist order can be issued by a judge or government authority, and has a well-defined legal meaning. In contrast, a cease-and-desist letter can be sent by anyone, although typically they are drafted by a lawyer.

6. Poison Pen Letter

poison pen letter is a letter or note containing unpleasant, abusive or malicious statements or accusations about the recipient or a third party. It is usually sent anonymously. Poison pen letters are usually composed and sent to upset the recipient. They differ fromblackmail, which is intended to obtain something, in that they are purely malicious.

The US Federal Bureau of Investigation used poison pen letters as a tactic during their COINTELPRO projects, targeting people such asMartin Luther King Jr.[1] Some politicians, such as Harvey Milk, as well as many celebrities, have often received poison pen letters.

With the advent of e-mail and the general decline in letter writing, poison pen letters have become something of a rarity.

7. National Letter of Intent

The National Letter of Intent (NLI) is a document used to indicate a student athlete’s commitment to participating NCAA colleges and universities in the United States. The NCAA Eligibility Center manages the daily operations of the NLI program while the Collegiate Commissioners Association (CCA) provides governance oversight of the program. Started in 1964 with seven conferences and eight independent institutions, the program now includes 616 Division I and II participating institutions.

NLIs are typically faxed by the recruited student to the university’s athletic department on a national signing day.

The NLI is a voluntary program with regard to both institutions and student-athletes. No prospective student-athlete or parent is required to sign the National Letter of Intent, and no institution is required to join the program.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epistle http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chain_letter http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hate_mail http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Letter_(message) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Letter_of_Intent http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poison_pen_letter http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cease_and_desist http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dear_John_letter

Indonesia

25 Feb

Indonesia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Republic of Indonesia

Republik Indonesia
Flag National Emblem
Motto: Bhinneka Tunggal Ika  (Old Javanese)
Unity in Diversity

National ideology: Pancasila[1][2]
Anthem: 

Play sound
Indonesiaraya.ogg

Indonesia Raya
“Great Indonesia”

Capital
(and largest city)
Jakarta
6°10.5′S 106°49.7′E
Official language(s) Indonesian
Ethnic groups (2000) Javanese 40.6%
Sundanese 15%
Madurese 3.3%
Minangkabau 2.7%
Betawi 2.4%
Bugis 2.4%
Banten 2%
Banjar 1.7%
other
or unspecified 29.9%
Demonym Indonesian
Government Unitary presidentialconstitutional republic
 – President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
 – Vice President Boediono
Legislature People’s Consultative Assembly
 – Upper house Regional Representative Council
 – Lower house People’s Representative Council
Independence The Netherlands
 – Declared 17 August 1945
 – Acknowledged 27 December 1949
Area
 – Land 1,919,440 km2 (15th)
735,355 sq mi
 – Water (%) 4.85
Population
 – 2011 estimate 237,424,363 (4th)
 – 2011 census 237,424,363[3]
 – Density 123.76/km2 (84th)
323.05/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate
 – Total $1.105 trillion[3] (15th)
 – Per capita $4,657[3] (122nd)
GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate
 – Total $822.631 billion[3] (17th)
 – Per capita $3,464[3] (107th)
Gini (2011 {) 36.8 (medium)
HDI (2011) increase0.617[4] (medium) (124th)
Currency Rupiah (IDR)
Time zone various (UTC+7 to +9)
Drives on the Left
ISO 3166 code ID
Internet TLD .id
Calling code +62

Indonesia (Listeni/ˌɪndəˈniːʒə/ or /ˌɪndoʊˈniːziə/), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia), is a country inSoutheast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 17,508 islands.[5] It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world’s fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an elected legislature and president. The nation’s capital city is Jakarta. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and Malaysia. Other neighboring countries include Singapore, Philippines, Australia, and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Indonesia is a founding member of ASEAN and a member of the G-20 major economies. The Indonesian economy is the world’s seventeenth largest economy by nominal GDP and fifteenth largest by purchasing power parity.

The Indonesian archipelago has been an important trade region since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and then later Majapahittraded with China and India. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural, religious and political models from the early centuries CE, andHindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Muslim traders brought Islam, and European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolize trade in the Spice Islands of Malukuduring the Age of Discovery. Following three and a half centuries of Dutch colonialism, Indonesia secured its independence after World War II. Indonesia’s history has since been turbulent, with challenges posed by natural disasters, corruption, separatism, a democratization process, and periods of rapid economic change.

Across its many islands, Indonesia consists of distinct ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups. The Javanese are the largest—and the politically dominant—ethnic group. Indonesia has developed a shared identity defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a majority Muslim population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia’s national motto, “Bhinneka Tunggal Ika” (“Unity in Diversity” literally, “many, yet one”), articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the world’s second highest level of biodiversity. The country is richly endowed with natural resources, yet poverty remains widespread.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indonesia

ANIMAX

25 Feb

So, what is animax?

Animax (アニマックス Animakkusu?) is a Japanese anime satellite television network, dedicated to broadcasting anime programming. A subsidiary of Japanese media conglomerate Sony, it is headquartered in New Pier Takeshiba North Tower (ニューピア竹芝ノースタワー Nyū Pia Takeshiba Nōsu Tawā?) in Minato, Tokyo, Japan, with its co-founders and shareholders including Sony Pictures Entertainment and the noted anime studios Sunrise, Toei Animation, TMS Entertainment, and production company NAS.

Operating across Japan, Taiwan, India, Pakistan, South Korea, Southeast Asia, Hong Kong, Latin America (replacing Locomotion) and most recently in Europe (launching across Germany, Romania, Hungary, Czech Republic in 2007 (replacing Anime+ in Romania, Hungary, and Czech Republic), Slovakia (replacing Anime+), Spain and Portugal (both initially on sister channel AXN) in 2008, and soon to be launched in the United Kingdom, Poland (has been halted), Italy, France and several other countries),[7][8] Africa and Australia (currently a two-hour block on Sci Fi Channel, which is co-owned by Animax’s parent Sony Pictures Entertainment), Animax is the first and largest 24-hour network dedicated to anime in the world,[6][9] with a viewer reach of over 89 million households, 62 countries and more than 17 languages.[10]However, it is not known why Animax was cut off from Vietnam Cable network

Its title is a portmanteau of the words anime (アニメ?) and max (マックス makkusu?).[11] It also has English language networks in Southeast Asia, South Asia, South Africa, and most recently, a two-hour network in Australia (via Sci Fi Channel, which is co-owned by Animax’s parent Sony Pictures Entertainment), and is expected to plan launching other English language networks, most notably in the United Kingdom, Australia, and North America.

:3

What proggrams are there in animax, here in Indonesia?

Beelzebub

Maid Sama!

Bleach – Memories of Nobody

The Book of Bantorra

Cardfight!! Vanguard

K-ON!!

Chromed Shelled Regios

Naruto

Fairy Tail

Shangri-La

Tales of the Abyss

The Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya 2

Winter Sonata

Tower of Druaga

K-ON!

Bleach

Romeo X Juliet

Nura: Rise of the Yokai Clan

Samurai Champloo

Stigma of The Wind

Colourcloud Palace 2

Sergeant Keroro (Season 3)

Kekkaishi

Fullmetal Alchemist Brotherhood

Black Butler

Gurren Lagann

Busou Renkin

Hayate the Combat Butler (Season 2)

Fairy Tail Season 2

IDATEN JUMP!

LASTEXILE -Fam, The Silver Wing-

InuYasha

Letter Bee

Nodame Cantabile

Spooky Kitaro 5

Shakugan No Shana

07-Ghost

Tears to Tiara

Baka and Test – Summon the Beasts

Toward The Terra

Lucky Star

Yu Yu Hakusho

Mind to watch?

Sources: Wikipedia, Animax official site.

For more information: http://www.animax-asia.com/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animax

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