Tag Archives: Knowledge

Types of Unusual Letters

29 Mar

There are so many letter i dont know here

So, well, yeah…

1. Dear John Letter

“Dear John letter” is a letter written to a husband or boyfriend by his wife or girlfriend to inform him their relationship is over, usually because the author has found another lover. Dear John Letters are often written out of an inability or unwillingness to inform the person face to face. The reverse situation, in which someone writes to his wife or girlfriend to break off the relationship, is referred to as a “Dear Jane letter.”

While the exact origins of the phrase are unknown, it is commonly believed to have been coined by Americans during World War II. Large numbers of American troops were stationed overseas for many months or years, and as time passed many of their wives or girlfriends decided to begin a relationship with a new man rather than wait for their old one to return.

As letters to servicemen from wives or girlfriends back home would typically contain affectionate language (such as “Dear Johnny”, “My dearest John”, or simply “Darling”), a serviceman receiving a note beginning with a curt “Dear John” would instantly be aware of the letter’s purpose.

A writer in the Democrat and Chronicle of Rochester, NY, summed it up in August 1945:

“Dear John,” the letter began. “I have found someone else whom I think the world of. I think the only way out is for us to get a divorce,” it said. They usually began like that, those letters that told of infidelity on the part of the wives of servicemen… The men called them “Dear Johns”.

An early reference to Dear John letters was made in a United Press article of March 21, 1944.[1]

There are a number of theories on why the name John is used rather than any other. John was a common name in the United States at the time the term was coined. John is also the name used in many other terms that refer to an anonymous man or men, such as “John Doe” or “John Smith”. Another possible source for the term is the “Dear John” soap opera which was on the radio from 1933 to 1944.

The phrase “that’s all she wrote” is believed to have originated from Dear John letters. These letters would contain either the words “Dear John” and abruptly terminate, or only contain the words “Dear John, goodbye.” The phrase “that’s all she wrote” is used to indicate the end of story or an abrupt end of story, especially when the reader has a desire to know more, but the writer does not want to fulfill that desire. An example of this connection can be found in the 1951 country hit “Dear John” by Hank Williams. In this song, the chorus proceeds as “…And that’s all she wrote, Dear John…”

2. Chain Letter

A typical chain letter consists of a message that attempts to convince the recipient to make a number of copies of the letter and then pass them on to as many recipients as possible. Common methods used in chain letters include emotionally manipulative stories, get-rich-quickly pyramid schemes, and the exploitation of superstition to threaten the recipient with bad luck or even physical violence or death if he or she “breaks the chain” and refuses to adhere to the conditions set out in the letter. Chain letters started as actual letters that one received in the mail. Today, chain letters are generally no longer actual letters. They are sent through email messages, postings on social network sites, and text messages.

There are two main types of chain letters:

  1. Hoaxes – Hoaxes attempt to trick or defraud users. A hoax could be malicious, instructing users to delete a file necessary to the operating system by claiming it is a virus. It could also be a scam that convinces users to send money or personal information. Phishing attacks could fall into this.
  2. Urban legends – Urban legends are designed to be redistributed and usually warn users of a threat or claim to be notifying them of important or urgent information. Another common form are the emails that promise users monetary rewards for forwarding the message or suggest that they are signing something that will be submitted to a particular group. Urban legends usually have no negative effect aside from wasted time.

In the United States, chain letters that request money or other items of value and promise a substantial return to the participants (such as the infamous Make Money Fast scheme) are considered a form of gambling and therefore illegal.[1] Other types of chain letters are viewed as a general nuisance in that frequently multiplying letters clog up the postal system and do not function as correspondence mail, but rather, a game. Some colleges and military bases have passed regulations stating that in the private mail of college students and military personnel, respectively, chain letters are not authorized and will be thrown out. However, it is often difficult to distinguish chain letters from genuine correspondence.

3. Epistle

An epistle (play /ɨˈpɪsəl/; Greek ἐπιστολή, epistolē, ‘letter’) is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of people, usually an elegant and formal didactic letter. The epistle genre of letter-writing was common in ancient Egypt as part of the scribal-school writing curriculum. The letters in the New Testament from Apostles to Christians are usually referred to as epistles. Those traditionally attributed to Paul are known asPauline epistles and the others as catholic (i.e., “general”) epistles.

4. Hate Mail

Hate mail (as electronic, posted, or otherwise) is a form of harassment, usually consisting of invective and potentially intimidating or threatening comments towards the recipient. Hate mail often contains exceptionally abusive, foul or otherwise hurtful language.

The recipient may receive disparaging remarks concerning their ethnicity, sexuality, religion, intelligence, political ideology, sense of ethics, or sense of aesthetics. The text of hate mail often contains profanity, or it may simply contain a negative, disappropriating message.

Forensic linguists have increasingly been called upon to identify authorship of hate mail. See for example ‘Wordcrime’ a case file series by John Olsson, UK forensic linguist, which details several cases.

5. Cease and Desist

cease and desist is an order or request to halt an activity (cease) and not to take it up again later (desist) or else face legal action. The recipient of the cease-and-desist may be an individual or an organization.

In the U.S. the term is used in two different contexts. A cease-and-desist order can be issued by a judge or government authority, and has a well-defined legal meaning. In contrast, a cease-and-desist letter can be sent by anyone, although typically they are drafted by a lawyer.

6. Poison Pen Letter

poison pen letter is a letter or note containing unpleasant, abusive or malicious statements or accusations about the recipient or a third party. It is usually sent anonymously. Poison pen letters are usually composed and sent to upset the recipient. They differ fromblackmail, which is intended to obtain something, in that they are purely malicious.

The US Federal Bureau of Investigation used poison pen letters as a tactic during their COINTELPRO projects, targeting people such asMartin Luther King Jr.[1] Some politicians, such as Harvey Milk, as well as many celebrities, have often received poison pen letters.

With the advent of e-mail and the general decline in letter writing, poison pen letters have become something of a rarity.

7. National Letter of Intent

The National Letter of Intent (NLI) is a document used to indicate a student athlete’s commitment to participating NCAA colleges and universities in the United States. The NCAA Eligibility Center manages the daily operations of the NLI program while the Collegiate Commissioners Association (CCA) provides governance oversight of the program. Started in 1964 with seven conferences and eight independent institutions, the program now includes 616 Division I and II participating institutions.

NLIs are typically faxed by the recruited student to the university’s athletic department on a national signing day.

The NLI is a voluntary program with regard to both institutions and student-athletes. No prospective student-athlete or parent is required to sign the National Letter of Intent, and no institution is required to join the program.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epistle http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chain_letter http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hate_mail http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Letter_(message) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Letter_of_Intent http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poison_pen_letter http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cease_and_desist http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dear_John_letter



29 Mar

Nyuuu~ Mii’s updating again~ X3

Ne, you guys know Matryoshka? Its Hatsune Miku and GUMI’s song!!

Do you notice Wikipedia? :3


matryoshka doll is a Russian nesting doll (Russian: Матрёшка) which is a set of wooden dolls of decreasing size placed one inside the other. The first Russian nested doll set was carved in 1890 by Vasily Zvyozdochkin from a design by Sergey Malyutin, who was a folk crafts painter at Abramtsevo. Traditionally the outer layer is a woman, dressed in a sarafan, a long and shapeless traditional Russian peasantjumper dress. The figures inside may be of either gender; the smallest, innermost doll is typically a baby lathed from a single piece of wood. Much of the artistry is in the painting of each doll, which can be very elaborate. The dolls often follow a theme, aside from the typical traditional peasant girls, the themes vary, from fairy tale characters to Soviet leaders.

History of Secret Codes

28 Mar

Attack on Admiral Yamamoto

Early on April 18, 1943, at 7:45 AM, Japanese Admiral Yamamoto’s plane was approaching Ballale for a scheduled 8 o’clock inspection of units on that island. Suddenly, from 20,000 feet, high above his six fighter plane escort, a sortie of 18 P-38 fighters attacked. One P-38, in the first group of four, shot the wing off the bomber in which Yamamoto was riding. Before his escorts could even react, Yamamoto’s aircraft went spiralling down and crashed into the sea. The Japanese had lost the naval officer that had planned and led the attack on Pearl Harbor just 16 months before. Many historians believe that his loss ended any hopes by the Japanese of winning the war.

Attack on Admiral Yamamoto Map

How was it possible for a flight of P-38 Lightnings from a base in Guadalcanal to achieve such an improbable feat? For the twin engine Lightnings, Ballale was almost two hours flying time from Guadalcanal and within 10 minutes of the limit of their range. They wouldn’t be able to hang around very long waiting for their target. In addition, Admiral Yamamoto was flying from his headquarters on Rabaul only 1 1/2 hours from Ballale, so the P-38′s would have had to leave Henderson field on Guadalcanal 30 minutes BEFORE Admiral Yamamoto took off! How could they have known?

Page 1 from “SECRET CODE BREAKER – A Cryptanalyst’s Handbook “

Spy the Codebreakers Caught

Pablo Waberski crossed the border from Mexico at Nogales, Arizona on February 1, 1918. His passport indicated he was a Russian citizen. Mexico was a neutral country during the First World War (1916-1919) and, like Portugal during the Second World War, it was a favorite hangout for spies. It was particularly convenient for German spies intent on entering the United States undetected. For that reason, the U.S. had a large number of undercover agents operating in Mexico, trying to identify foreign agents. A warning had been relayed to U.S. border officials to be on the lookout for Pablo Waberski. American undercover agents in Mexico suspected he was a German spy whose real name was Lather Witcke! Because of the warning, Waberski was arrested at Nogales and taken to a nearby military base and searched. Military Intelligence officers found nothing of interest except a sheet of paper with a series of 10-letter codegroups written on it. Without being able to read the code, or even prove that it was a code, they would not be able to hold Waberski for more than 24 hours.

Here is what the first few lines of the actual code that Waberski was carrying looked like:

Waberski Code

A copy of the paper with the 10-letter groups was sent to Washington and turned over to Herbert O. Yardley. Yardley was the head of a small but effective group of cryptanalysts in a secret department called simply MI-8. Among the secret agencies of the world it was also called “The American Black Chamber.” Yardley was given the task of “cracking” the apparent code and producing the proof that Pablo Waberski was not a tourist from Russian visiting the United States, but a German spy named Lather Witcke. Yardley and his team of cryptanalysts had less than 24 hours in which to do it.

Page 33 from “SECRET CODE BREAKER – A Cryptanalyst’s Handbook

Family of Spies

John Walker lay on his bed in the Rockville, Maryland, motel and tried to figure out what went wrong. Had he made a mistake on the date? Were the Russians trying to pull a double cross? Was the KGB making him pay for his having given them some photographs in a previous drop that were too blurred to be of any use? He couldn’t figure out what had gone wrong. This was the first time in the 20 years he had been selling secrets to the KGB that he hadn’t received his money.

Map Given to Walker by KGB

Map the KGB had given Walker with instructions for finding and using dead drop.

He thought back to 1970, when he had been transferred to a training unit and lost his access to key lists and could not keep supplying the Russians with what they wanted most. At that time, the KGB staff in Moscow had become suspicious that he might be an FBI plant and threatened to kill him if he tried to end his spying activities. It was a shock to him at the time; but over the years, he had adjusted to life as a spy and threats from his Russian handlers no longer bothered him. He hadn’t been this worried about what was going on since his scare in January, 1978, when the KGB insisted that he go to Vienna to deliver the envelope full of miniature camera film cartridges. At that time, he had been afraid he was going to be killed in some Vienna back street after turning over the pictures he had taken of U.S. Navy cipher machine key lists. The Russians had insisted that he stay at a cheap hotel, and the fact that he couldn’t speak a foreign language had made him rather conspicuous. He was sure that his communication problems with the hotel people had alerted every espionage agent in the entire city and if the KGB didn’t eliminate him, the CIA would probably grab him. But he had finally made contact, turned over the film, waited around until he was paid and then left without incident.

Page 79 from “SECRET CODE BREAKER III – A Cryptanalyst’s Handbook “

Caesar Cipher History

The Roman ruler Julius Caesar (100 B.C. – 44 B.C.) used a very simple cipher for secret communication. He substituted each letter of the alphabet with a letter three positions further along. Later, any cipher that used this “displacement” concept for the creation of a cipher alphabet, was referred to as a Caesar cipher. Of all the substitution type ciphers, this Caesar cipher is the simplest to solve, since there are only 25 possible combinations.

Caesar Cipher

Often this type of cipher is implemented on a wheel device. A disk or wheel has the alphabet printed on it and then a movable smaller disk or wheel with the same alphabet printed on it is mounted forming an inner wheel. The inner wheel then can be rotated so that any letter on one wheel can be aligned with any letter on the other wheel.

For example, if the inner wheel is rotated so that the letter M is placed under the letter A on the outer wheel, the Caesar cipher will have a displacement of 12. To encipher the letter P, locate it on the outer wheel and then write down the corresponding letter from the inner wheel, which in this case is B. The same can be accomplished by placing alphabets on two pieces of paper and sliding them back and forth to create a displacement.

Page 51 from “SECRET CODE BREAKER – A Cryptanalyst’s Handbook “

From Where, Will the Attack Come?

It was midnight, June 9, 1918. The French forces along the defensive line running in a north-south direction from Montdidier to Compiegne had been braced for two days, following a warning that an attack was imminent. The 62 divisions of the German army under the command of General Ludendorff had been advancing steadily since March 21, which marked the beginning of the German spring offensive. That advance had started with a German victory at the second battle of the Somme.

Map of German Attack in France

The German army had attacked a weak point in the British lines between the Oise River and Cambrai with devastating results. Then a second attack, on April 9, had driven a wedge in the lines just north of Soissons.

After a long pause to regroup and supply the front line units, a third attack from the left was launched on May 27 between Soissons and Reims. It pushed the entire front line considerably further to the south. They were now poised to strike Paris, the French capital. In a little over two months, the German forces had rapidly thrust forward along a 100 mile front and were now only 30 miles from Paris, at Chateau-Thiery, in the east and 50 miles, at Montdidier, in the north.

The German forces paused again to consolidate their gains and they prepared for the final thrust. The French command knew that the only chance they had of stopping this advance was by concentrating their outnumbered forces at the exact point of the next German attack. But where would that be?

Page 23 from “SECRET CODE BREAKER II – A Cryptanalyst’s Handbook “

Cipher in a Hollow Nickel

It was a pleasant evening in Brooklyn that summer of 1953 and Jimmy Bozart, a delivery boy for the ‘Brooklyn Eagle’ newspaper, was collecting from his customers. One lady had only a one dollar bill and Jimmy didn’t have enough change. He went across the hall and found two ladies that together were able to give him change for the dollar. After he finished collecting, he noticed that one of the coins seemed to be different from the others. The coin, a nickel, felt lighter than usual. He dropped it on the sidewalk and it split apart. Inside the hollow nickel was a piece of microfilm about one-half inch square. The small square of film was filled with rows of numbers.

Hollow Nickel Cipher

Jimmy, realizing it was probably a secret code of some sort, turned it over to the police. The police suspected that the small piece of film with numbers on it had something to do with spies, so they sent it to the FBI, the government agency whose job it is to catch spies. The film was turned over to FBI cryptographers in Washington and agents began interviewing people in Jimmy’s neighborhood to see if they could find out where the hollow nickel had come from. Neither the cryptographers in Washington, nor the agents conducting the search in New York, were able to make any headway in determining what message had been placed on the microfilm or the origin of the hollow nickel. On and off from 1953 to 1957, many worked on the case but could make no headway. The only fact that could be determined was that the numbers had probably been typed using a typewriter of foreign manufacture. Several foreign intelligence agents, who had defected to the United States and other free countries were contacted. Not one had any idea about the microfilm or the nickel.

Page 17 from “SECRET CODE BREAKER II – A Cryptanalyst’s Handbook “

Russian Spymaster Rudolph Abel – Covername Goldfus

After establishing himself in the New York neighborhood, Goldfus began to locate various places in the New York city area such as isolated park benches, that could be used to leave messages (dead-drops) and to use as potential meeting sites for future spy activities. Among the many places Colonel Abel found for exchange of information was a bridge over a footpath in Central Park, a lamppost in Fort Tyron Park and a hole in a wall on Jerome Avenue in the Bronx. Also, the theater called Symphony Space, one of the neighborhood favorites for plays and musicals, was designated a drop point by Abel. Messages were placed upstairs in the balcony on the east side under the carpet. He also used a waste basket in Central Park, at Tavern on the Green.

Rudolph Abel

Russian spy Rudolph Abel, covername – “Goldfus”

One signal point for a drop/pickup indication (where a green thumbtack was placed) was a sign on the parkside entrance to Tavern on the Green and another sign point was under the hand rail at an elevated train stop in Queens. After all these years, many of these dead drops and signal points can still be identified in the New York area.

Then, in December, 1952, he rented the studio space in the Brooklyn warehouse, called the Ovington building, on Fulton street. He pretended to be a retired photo finisher, which gave him a perfect cover for the photo equipment he used to prepare the microfilm of documents and messages.

Page 61 from “SECRET CODE BREAKER III – A Cryptanalyst’s Handbook “

Capturing a British Spy

He had been given a ‘pass,’ signed by the American officer from whom he had received the information about West Point. It was a written order allowing ‘Mr. John Anderson’ to pass safety through American lines. Confident that this pass would see him through any challenge from American forces, he started his trip south across the ‘no man’s land’ between opposing armies.

What the British major hadn’t considered was the presence of free booting marauders that wandered the areas between the two armies and robbed and plundered anyone they came upon. When he sighted one such trio of ruffians, he noticed one was wearing a Hessian (German) soldier’s jacket. Major André mistakenly thought he had reached the British lines. He immediately identified himself to this armed threesome as a British officer. That turned out to be a fatal mistake.

The Capture of Major André

Early American painting, attributed to A. B. Durand, 1845
(Notice André’s boots have been removed)

They were renegade Americans, not Hessians in the pay of the British. Quickly, he tried to recover by presenting his ‘pass.’ That only made them very suspicious and they forced him from his horse and searched him. Finding little money, they assumed it had been hidden in his boots. When they ordered him to remove his boots, they found no money, but they discovered the plans he was carrying. Unable to read very well, they did not completely understand the nature of their find, but decided that maybe there would be a reward for turning André over to the Continental Army.

When the military took him into custody, they quickly realized what André was up to and why he had these plans and information hidden in his boot. Then they noticed the ‘pass.’ It had been signed by an American officer, who up until this moment was considered by all to be a hero of the Revolutionary War. He had saved the day three years earlier in October, 1777, at Saratoga by turning back the entire British advance from Canada down the Hudson river. The Commander-in-Chief of all the American forces, General George Washington, considered the signer to be one of his most valuable leaders. The ‘pass’ that British Major André held was signed by American General Benedict Arnold, commanding officer of the fort at West Point!

Page 19 from “SECRET CODE BREAKER III – A Cryptanalyst’s Handbook “

Source: http://www.secretcodebreaker.com/history.html

Time Dilation

28 Mar

What Is A Black Hole ?

28 Mar


A black hole with gas spiraling into it

An artist’s drawing shows a large black hole pulling gas away from a nearby star. Image Credit: NASA E/PO, Sonoma State University, Aurore Simonnet

A black hole is a place in space where gravity pulls so much that even light can not get out. The gravity is so strong because matter has been squeezed into a tiny space. This can happen when a star is dying. 

Because no light can get out, people can’t see black holes. They are invisible. Space telescopes with special tools can help find black holes. The special tools can see how stars that are very close to black holes act differently than other stars. 

How Big Are Black Holes?

Black holes can be big or small. Scientists think the smallest black holes are as small as just one atom. These black holes are very tiny but have the mass of a large mountain. Mass is…

View original post 544 more words

Anime and Adults

20 Mar

Even in Japan, many people think anime are for children and watching it will make you seems childish. They think anime aren’t suited for them, like in anime Ore no Imouto ga Konnani Kawaii wake ga nai.

Below are 25 popular anime that people say, that are for children, according to BIGLOBE…

1. Ano Hi Mita Hana

2. Natsume’s Book of Friends

3. Usagi Drop

4. Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex

5. Clannad After Story

6. Chihayafuru

7. Puella Magi Madoka Magica

8. Toradora!

9. Hanasaku Iroha

10. Bakemonogatari

11. Neon Genesis Evangelion

12. The Disappearance of Haruhi Suzumiya

13. Steins;Gate

14. Mawaru Penguindrum

15. Angel Beats!

16. Cowboy Bebop

17. Ghost in the Shell

18. Fullmetal Alchemist

19. Mushishi

20. Grave of the Fireflies

21. Black Lagoon

22. The Tatami Galaxy

23. Mononoke

24. Fate/Zero

25. Crayon Shin-chan: The Adult Empire Strikes Back

As you know, most of those are rated ‘ecchi’, or they are a story with a complicated plot children might not understand.


Source: Translated from http://megindo.net/news/Animonster/25-anime-yang-banyak-orang-mengira-untuk-anakanak/aeb1dcee07b2d08a53d8bb6f29d7bfbb/

Images: Google



14 Mar

Vocaloid (ボーカロイド Bōkaroido) is a singing synthesizer. Its signal processing part was developed through a joint research project led by Kenmochi Hideki at the Pompeu Fabra University in Spain in 2000 and originally was not intended to be a full commercial project. Backed by the Yamaha Corporation it developed the software into the commercial product “Vocaloid”. The software enables users to synthesize singing by typing in lyrics and melody. It uses synthesizing technology with specially recorded vocals of voice actors or singers. To create a song, the user must input the melody and lyrics. A piano roll type interface is used to input the melody and the lyrics can be entered on each note. The software can change the stress of the pronunciations, add effects such as vibrato, or change the dynamics and tone of the voice. Each Vocaloid is sold as “a singer in a box” designed to act as a replacement for an actual singer. The software was originally only available in English and Japanese, but as of Vocaloid 3, Spanish, Chinese and Korean have been added.

The software is intended for professional musicians as well as light computer music users and has so far sold on the idea that the only limits are the users’ own skills. Japanese musical groups Livetune of Victor Entertainment and Supercell of Sony Music Entertainment Japanhave released their songs featuring Vocaloid as vocals. Japanese record label Exit Tunes of Quake Inc. also have released compilation albums featuring Vocaloids. Artists such as Mike Oldfield have also used Vocaloids within their work for back up singer vocals and sound samples.

This is from Wikipedia. At first i, too, dont really understand. So i summarize it.

Vocaloid is a program to make a singer sing a song you create yourself, or a copy of other’s song. The singer themselves are plenty. Such as: Hatsune Miku, Kagamine twins, Megurine Luka, Kaito, Meiko, dll.  Yes, of course they aren’t real, their voice are from some singer’s voice samples.

In the program you can edit the vocal, the music, and many more, like the picture below.

Vocaloids, specially Hatsune Miku had boomed in the whole world. Search Hatsune Miku and the world tells! Hatsune Miku, through holograms, had concerts in not just Japan– US, Singapore! And just this March 8 and 9, she performs again in Tokyo dome.

And her song, Black★ Rock Shooter, has become an anime!!!

 MIKU!!!!!!!! I LOVE YOUUUU!!!!!! :*

Hatsune Miku

My fav song by her : Tell your world, Black★Rock Shooter, Love is war, Magnet, Ievan Polkka and Lillim. :3

Kagamine Rin & Len

See also: http://bit.ly/tbnDed, http://bit.ly/tZ1xtF, http://www.crypton.co.jp/mp/pages/prod/vocaloid/cv01_us.jsp, http://www.amazon.co.jp/gp/product/B003S9U5CS?ie=UTF8http://bit.ly/hWDPco.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vocaloid, Youtube, etc.

Why is the sky blue?

12 Mar

Look! I found the answer of our question… 🙂


On a clear sunny day, the sky above us looks bright blue. In the evening, the sunset puts on a brilliant show of reds, pinks and oranges. Why is the sky blue? What makes the sunset red?

To answer these questions, we must learn about light, and the Earth’s atmosphere.


The atmosphere is the mixture of gas molecules and other materials surrounding the earth. It is made mostly of the gases nitrogen (78%), and oxygen (21%). Argon gas and water (in the form of vapor, droplets and ice crystals) are the next most common things. There are also small amounts of other gases, plus many small solid particles, like dust, soot and ashes, pollen, and salt from the oceans.

The composition of the atmosphere varies, depending on your location, the weather, and many other things. There may be more water in the air after a rainstorm, or near the ocean. Volcanoes can put large amounts of dust particles high into the atmosphere. Pollution can add different gases or dust and soot.

The atmosphere is densest (thickest) at the bottom, near the Earth. It gradually thins out as you go higher and higher up. There is no sharp break between the atmosphere and space.


Light is a kind of energy that radiates, or travels, in waves. Many different kinds of energy travel in waves. For example, sound is a wave of vibrating air. Light is a wave of vibrating electric and magnetic fields. It is one small part of a larger range of vibrating electromagnetic fields. This range is called the electromagnetic spectrum.

Electromagnetic waves travel through space at 299,792 km/sec (186,282 miles/sec). This is called the speed of light.

Light waves

The energy of the radiation depends on its wavelength and frequency. Wavelength is the distance between the tops (crests) of the waves. Frequency is the number of waves that pass by each second. The longer the wavelength of the light, the lower the frequency, and the less energy it contains.


Visible light is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum that our eyes can see. Light from the sun or a light bulb may look white, but it is actually a combination of many colors. We can see the different colors of the spectrum by splitting the light with a prism. The spectrum is also visible when you see a rainbow in the sky.

Rainbow Picture

The colors blend continuously into one another. At one end of the spectrum are the reds and oranges. These gradually shade into yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. The colors have different wavelengths, frequencies, and energies. Violet has the shortest wavelength in the visible spectrum. That means it has the highest frequency and energy. Red has the longest wavelength, and lowest frequency and energy.


Light travels through space in a straight line as long as nothing disturbs it. As light moves through the atmosphere, it continues to go straight until it bumps into a bit of dust or a gas molecule. Then what happens to the light depends on its wave length and the size of the thing it hits.

Dust particles and water droplets are much larger than the wavelength of visible light. When light hits these large particles, it gets reflected, or bounced off, in different directions. The different colors of light are all reflected by the particle in the same way. The reflected light appears white because it still contains all of the same colors.

Gas molecules are smaller than the wavelength of visible light. If light bumps into them, it acts differently. When light hits a gas molecule, some of it may get absorbed. After awhile, the molecule radiates (releases, or gives off) the light in a different direction. The color that is radiated is the same color that was absorbed. The different colors of light are affected differently. All of the colors can be absorbed. But the higher frequencies (blues) are absorbed more often than the lower frequencies (reds). This process is called Rayleigh scattering. (It is named after Lord John Rayleigh, an English physicist, who first described it in the 1870’s.)


The blue color of the sky is due to Rayleigh scattering. As light moves through the atmosphere, most of the longer wavelengths pass straight through. Little of the red, orange and yellow light is affected by the air.

However, much of the shorter wavelength light is absorbed by the gas molecules. The absorbed blue light is then radiated in different directions. It gets scattered all around the sky. Whichever direction you look, some of this scattered blue light reaches you. Since you see the blue light from everywhere overhead, the sky looks blue.

Blue sky from scattered light

As you look closer to the horizon, the sky appears much paler in color. To reach you, the scattered blue light must pass through more air. Some of it gets scattered away again in other directions. Less blue light reaches your eyes. The color of the sky near the horizon appears paler or white.

Sky paler at horizon


On Earth, the sun appears yellow. If you were out in space, or on the moon, the sun would look white. In space, there is no atmosphere to scatter the sun’s light. On Earth, some of the shorter wavelength light (the blues and violets) are removed from the direct rays of the sun by scattering. The remaining colors together appear yellow.

Also, out in space, the sky looks dark and black, instead of blue. This is because there is no atmosphere. There is no scattered light to reach your eyes.

Black sky in space


As the sun begins to set, the light must travel farther through the atmosphere before it gets to you. More of the light is reflected and scattered. As less reaches you directly, the sun appears less bright. The color of the sun itself appears to change, first to orange and then to red. This is because even more of the short wavelength blues and greens are now scattered. Only the longer wavelengths are left in the direct beam that reaches your eyes.

Sun red at sunset

The sky around the setting sun may take on many colors. The most spectacular shows occur when the air contains many small particles of dust or water. These particles reflect light in all directions. Then, as some of the light heads towards you, different amounts of the shorter wavelength colors are scattered out. You see the longer wavelengths, and the sky appears red, pink or orange.

Source: http://www.sciencemadesimple.com/sky_blue.html


12 Mar

Poseidon (Greek: Ποσειδῶν) was the god of the sea, and, as “Earth-Shaker,” of the earthquakes in Greek mythology. The name of the sea-god Nethuns in Etruscan was adopted in Latin for Neptune in Roman mythology: both were sea gods analogous to Poseidon. Linear Btablets show that Poseidon was venerated at Pylos and Thebes in pre-Olympian Bronze Age Greece, but he was integrated into theOlympian gods as the brother of Zeus and Hades. Poseidon has many children. There is a Homeric hymn to Poseidon, who was the protector of many Hellenic cities, although he lost the contest for Athens to Athena.

The earliest attested occurrence of the name, written in Linear B, is Po-se-da-o or Po-se-da-wo-ne, which correspond to Poseidaōn andPoseidawonos in Mycenean Greek; in Homeric Greek it appears as Ποσειδάων (Poseidaōn); in Aeolic as Ποτειδάων (Poteidaōn); and in Doricas Ποτειδάν (Poteidan), Ποτειδάων (Poteidaōn), and Ποτειδᾶς (Poteidas). A common epithet of Poseidon is Γαιήοχος Gaiēochos, “Earth-shaker,” an epithet which is also identified in Linear B tablets.

The origins of the name “Poseidon” are unclear. One theory breaks it down into an element meaning “husband” or “lord” (Greek πόσις(posis), from PIE *pótis) and another element meaning “earth” (δᾶ (da), Doric for γῆ ()), producing something like lord or spouse of Da, i.e. of the earth; this would link him with Demeter, “Earth-mother.” Walter Burkert finds that “the second element da- remains hopelessly ambiguous” and finds a “husband of Earth” reading “quite impossible to prove.” Another theory interprets the second element as related to the word *δᾶϜον dawon, “water”; this would make *Posei-dawōn into the master of waters. There is also the possibility that the word has Pre-Greek origin. Plato in his dialogue Cratylus gives two alternative etymologies: either the sea restrained Poseidon when walking as a foot-bond (ποσί-δεσμον), or he knew many things (πολλά εἰδότος or πολλά εἰδῶν).

Poseidon was a major civic god of several cities: in Athens, he was second only to Athena in importance, while in Corinth and many cities of Magna Graecia he was the chief god of the polis.[2]

In his benign aspect, Poseidon was seen as creating new islands and offering calm seas. When offended or ignored, he supposedly struck the ground with his trident and caused chaotic springs, earthquakes, drownings and shipwrecks. Sailors prayed to Poseidon for a safe voyage, sometimes drowning horses as a sacrifice; in this way, according to a fragmentary papyrus, Alexander the Great paused at the Syrian seashore before the climactic battle of Issus, and resorted to prayers, “invoking Poseidon the sea-god, for whom he ordered afour-horse chariot to be cast into the waves.”[9]

According to Pausanias, Poseidon was one of the caretakers of the oracle at Delphi before Olympian Apollo took it over. Apollo and Poseidon worked closely in many realms: in colonization, for example, Delphic Apollo provided the authorization to go out and settle, while Poseidon watched over the colonists on their way, and provided the lustral water for the foundation-sacrifice. Xenophon’s Anabasisdescribes a group of Spartan soldiers in 400–399 BCE singing to Poseidon a paean—a kind of hymn normally sung for Apollo.

Like Dionysus, who inflamed the maenads, Poseidon also caused certain forms of mental disturbance. A Hippocratic text of ca 400 BCE,On the Sacred Disease[10] says that he was blamed for certain types of epilepsy.

Letters, and how…

12 Mar

Yo!!! :3

Mii’s back again~~

Guys! I got a homework, about letters.

We have to presentate Letters, in a group of3, in 3 points: a. What b. Criteria c. How

I got how, the hardest-_- uurghhh!!


As you have know, a letter is a written message containing information from one party to another.

Now, how can we know this text, is a letter?

The easiest way is to see if there is a frame framing it.

For example, like this…

But, it doesnt always work, so just think it as a shortcut~

Then, there is many other easy way.

1. See if the first word in the text is Dear, ToFor, Hello, etc.

But maybe there are congratulation text which use them too so becareful.

2. See if the first word in the letter itself is How are you, How’s life, etc.

3. See if there is a signature or a name of the sender in the bottom of the text, and with word Cheers, With love, Your friend, Yours, Love, Regards, Sincerely, and such.

4. For e-mails questions, there must be a From, To, and Subject.

The letters come with questions:

a. Purpose (What is the purpose of the text?). For this question, you have to read really carefully the text.

b. Meaning (What does the underlined word means?). Here, you have to be a dictionary yourself. :3 But the word itself isn’t really hard, i guess.

c. Reasoning(Why is…). You have to read the text carefully too.

d.  Conclusion (we know that…). Just read the text carefully-_-

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