There are so many letter i dont know here…
So, well, yeah…
1. Dear John Letter
A “Dear John letter” is a letter written to a husband or boyfriend by his wife or girlfriend to inform him their relationship is over, usually because the author has found another lover. Dear John Letters are often written out of an inability or unwillingness to inform the person face to face. The reverse situation, in which someone writes to his wife or girlfriend to break off the relationship, is referred to as a “Dear Jane letter.”
While the exact origins of the phrase are unknown, it is commonly believed to have been coined by Americans during World War II. Large numbers of American troops were stationed overseas for many months or years, and as time passed many of their wives or girlfriends decided to begin a relationship with a new man rather than wait for their old one to return.
As letters to servicemen from wives or girlfriends back home would typically contain affectionate language (such as “Dear Johnny”, “My dearest John”, or simply “Darling”), a serviceman receiving a note beginning with a curt “Dear John” would instantly be aware of the letter’s purpose.
A writer in the Democrat and Chronicle of Rochester, NY, summed it up in August 1945:
“Dear John,” the letter began. “I have found someone else whom I think the world of. I think the only way out is for us to get a divorce,” it said. They usually began like that, those letters that told of infidelity on the part of the wives of servicemen… The men called them “Dear Johns”.
An early reference to Dear John letters was made in a United Press article of March 21, 1944.
There are a number of theories on why the name John is used rather than any other. John was a common name in the United States at the time the term was coined. John is also the name used in many other terms that refer to an anonymous man or men, such as “John Doe” or “John Smith”. Another possible source for the term is the “Dear John” soap opera which was on the radio from 1933 to 1944.
The phrase “that’s all she wrote” is believed to have originated from Dear John letters. These letters would contain either the words “Dear John” and abruptly terminate, or only contain the words “Dear John, goodbye.” The phrase “that’s all she wrote” is used to indicate the end of story or an abrupt end of story, especially when the reader has a desire to know more, but the writer does not want to fulfill that desire. An example of this connection can be found in the 1951 country hit “Dear John” by Hank Williams. In this song, the chorus proceeds as “…And that’s all she wrote, Dear John…”
2. Chain Letter
A typical chain letter consists of a message that attempts to convince the recipient to make a number of copies of the letter and then pass them on to as many recipients as possible. Common methods used in chain letters include emotionally manipulative stories, get-rich-quickly pyramid schemes, and the exploitation of superstition to threaten the recipient with bad luck or even physical violence or death if he or she “breaks the chain” and refuses to adhere to the conditions set out in the letter. Chain letters started as actual letters that one received in the mail. Today, chain letters are generally no longer actual letters. They are sent through email messages, postings on social network sites, and text messages.
There are two main types of chain letters:
- Hoaxes – Hoaxes attempt to trick or defraud users. A hoax could be malicious, instructing users to delete a file necessary to the operating system by claiming it is a virus. It could also be a scam that convinces users to send money or personal information. Phishing attacks could fall into this.
- Urban legends – Urban legends are designed to be redistributed and usually warn users of a threat or claim to be notifying them of important or urgent information. Another common form are the emails that promise users monetary rewards for forwarding the message or suggest that they are signing something that will be submitted to a particular group. Urban legends usually have no negative effect aside from wasted time.
In the United States, chain letters that request money or other items of value and promise a substantial return to the participants (such as the infamous Make Money Fast scheme) are considered a form of gambling and therefore illegal. Other types of chain letters are viewed as a general nuisance in that frequently multiplying letters clog up the postal system and do not function as correspondence mail, but rather, a game. Some colleges and military bases have passed regulations stating that in the private mail of college students and military personnel, respectively, chain letters are not authorized and will be thrown out. However, it is often difficult to distinguish chain letters from genuine correspondence.
An epistle ( /ɨˈpɪsəl/; Greek ἐπιστολή, epistolē, ‘letter’) is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of people, usually an elegant and formal didactic letter. The epistle genre of letter-writing was common in ancient Egypt as part of the scribal-school writing curriculum. The letters in the New Testament from Apostles to Christians are usually referred to as epistles. Those traditionally attributed to Paul are known asPauline epistles and the others as catholic (i.e., “general”) epistles.
4. Hate Mail
Hate mail (as electronic, posted, or otherwise) is a form of harassment, usually consisting of invective and potentially intimidating or threatening comments towards the recipient. Hate mail often contains exceptionally abusive, foul or otherwise hurtful language.
The recipient may receive disparaging remarks concerning their ethnicity, sexuality, religion, intelligence, political ideology, sense of ethics, or sense of aesthetics. The text of hate mail often contains profanity, or it may simply contain a negative, disappropriating message.
Forensic linguists have increasingly been called upon to identify authorship of hate mail. See for example ‘Wordcrime’ a case file series by John Olsson, UK forensic linguist, which details several cases.
5. Cease and Desist
A cease and desist is an order or request to halt an activity (cease) and not to take it up again later (desist) or else face legal action. The recipient of the cease-and-desist may be an individual or an organization.
In the U.S. the term is used in two different contexts. A cease-and-desist order can be issued by a judge or government authority, and has a well-defined legal meaning. In contrast, a cease-and-desist letter can be sent by anyone, although typically they are drafted by a lawyer.
6. Poison Pen Letter
A poison pen letter is a letter or note containing unpleasant, abusive or malicious statements or accusations about the recipient or a third party. It is usually sent anonymously. Poison pen letters are usually composed and sent to upset the recipient. They differ fromblackmail, which is intended to obtain something, in that they are purely malicious.
The US Federal Bureau of Investigation used poison pen letters as a tactic during their COINTELPRO projects, targeting people such asMartin Luther King Jr. Some politicians, such as Harvey Milk, as well as many celebrities, have often received poison pen letters.
With the advent of e-mail and the general decline in letter writing, poison pen letters have become something of a rarity.
7. National Letter of Intent
The National Letter of Intent (NLI) is a document used to indicate a student athlete’s commitment to participating NCAA colleges and universities in the United States. The NCAA Eligibility Center manages the daily operations of the NLI program while the Collegiate Commissioners Association (CCA) provides governance oversight of the program. Started in 1964 with seven conferences and eight independent institutions, the program now includes 616 Division I and II participating institutions.
NLIs are typically faxed by the recruited student to the university’s athletic department on a national signing day.
The NLI is a voluntary program with regard to both institutions and student-athletes. No prospective student-athlete or parent is required to sign the National Letter of Intent, and no institution is required to join the program.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epistle http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chain_letter http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hate_mail http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Letter_(message) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Letter_of_Intent http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poison_pen_letter http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cease_and_desist http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dear_John_letter