25 Feb


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Republic of Indonesia

Republik Indonesia
Flag National Emblem
Motto: Bhinneka Tunggal Ika  (Old Javanese)
Unity in Diversity

National ideology: Pancasila[1][2]

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Indonesia Raya
“Great Indonesia”

(and largest city)
6°10.5′S 106°49.7′E
Official language(s) Indonesian
Ethnic groups (2000) Javanese 40.6%
Sundanese 15%
Madurese 3.3%
Minangkabau 2.7%
Betawi 2.4%
Bugis 2.4%
Banten 2%
Banjar 1.7%
or unspecified 29.9%
Demonym Indonesian
Government Unitary presidentialconstitutional republic
 – President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
 – Vice President Boediono
Legislature People’s Consultative Assembly
 – Upper house Regional Representative Council
 – Lower house People’s Representative Council
Independence The Netherlands
 – Declared 17 August 1945
 – Acknowledged 27 December 1949
 – Land 1,919,440 km2 (15th)
735,355 sq mi
 – Water (%) 4.85
 – 2011 estimate 237,424,363 (4th)
 – 2011 census 237,424,363[3]
 – Density 123.76/km2 (84th)
323.05/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate
 – Total $1.105 trillion[3] (15th)
 – Per capita $4,657[3] (122nd)
GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate
 – Total $822.631 billion[3] (17th)
 – Per capita $3,464[3] (107th)
Gini (2011 {) 36.8 (medium)
HDI (2011) increase0.617[4] (medium) (124th)
Currency Rupiah (IDR)
Time zone various (UTC+7 to +9)
Drives on the Left
ISO 3166 code ID
Internet TLD .id
Calling code +62

Indonesia (Listeni/ˌɪndəˈniːʒə/ or /ˌɪndoʊˈniːziə/), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia), is a country inSoutheast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 17,508 islands.[5] It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world’s fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an elected legislature and president. The nation’s capital city is Jakarta. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and Malaysia. Other neighboring countries include Singapore, Philippines, Australia, and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Indonesia is a founding member of ASEAN and a member of the G-20 major economies. The Indonesian economy is the world’s seventeenth largest economy by nominal GDP and fifteenth largest by purchasing power parity.

The Indonesian archipelago has been an important trade region since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and then later Majapahittraded with China and India. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural, religious and political models from the early centuries CE, andHindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Muslim traders brought Islam, and European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolize trade in the Spice Islands of Malukuduring the Age of Discovery. Following three and a half centuries of Dutch colonialism, Indonesia secured its independence after World War II. Indonesia’s history has since been turbulent, with challenges posed by natural disasters, corruption, separatism, a democratization process, and periods of rapid economic change.

Across its many islands, Indonesia consists of distinct ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups. The Javanese are the largest—and the politically dominant—ethnic group. Indonesia has developed a shared identity defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a majority Muslim population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia’s national motto, “Bhinneka Tunggal Ika” (“Unity in Diversity” literally, “many, yet one”), articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the world’s second highest level of biodiversity. The country is richly endowed with natural resources, yet poverty remains widespread.



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